The Cattle Cycle, Sunspots, Climate Changes and the Orbital Interactions of the Gas Giant Planets
Brian T. Johnston, Bsc.,
E. Eng T., EM. Eng. T., Bsc. Man. Eng. T., Bsc. Bus. Admin.
Researchers have long suspected a link between climate variations on the earth and the changes on the sun, especially the relationship between the sunspot cycle and the earth’s climate. Others have speculated that the periods of the sunspot cycle are related to the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn due to the fact that the that the period of Jupiter is 11.86 years, which is similar to the sunspot cycle of 11.8 years and the periodic conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn approximately every 20 years. While these appears to be strong links there has never been truly solid evidence to correlate these divergent cycles. This article shows that there is a relationship between all of these cycles, but that there are also powerful influences associated with Uranus and Neptune. It is demonstrated that the fundamental economic cycles of the world are based upon the cycles of the planets as is the timing and magnitude of the sunspot cycle and the also the changes in the earth’s climate which are at the foundation of the world’s economic cycles. It also shows that even though all of these cycles are linked the cycles of the sun are not the causes of the world’s economic cycles, but rather the cycles are driven by the changes in the electromagnetic climate of the solar system that appear to be associated with the interactions of the planets.
Keywords: Planetary Cycles, sunspots, climate change.
The Cattle Cycle, Sunspots, Climate Changes and the Orbital Interactions of the Gas Giant Planets
Brian T. Johnston, Bsc.,
The agricultural cycles are fundamental to the world’s economies and are the primary catalysts which lead to social changes and wars. At the foundation and perhaps the most studied of these cycles is the Cattle cycle. As a part of my research into the various links between the planetary cycles and the general cycles of activities on the earth I came across an article on the Samuel Robert Noble Foundations website from 2002 on the Cattle Cycle entitled “Drought, Economy Have Affected Cattle Cycle”, by Steve Swigert. which had a chart that illustrated the idealized Cattle Cycle between 1974 and 2005. I immediately noticed the similarity between the shape and timing of the curve and the sunspot cycle and the relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn during this period. The article mentions that the cycles of droughts had affected the cattle prices and that the ensuing wars and disruptions following 911 were the contributing factors. (See chart 1.)
Chart 1. The above chart is the cattle cycle from 1974 to 2005. The degree markings are the relative angles between Jupiter and Saturn during this period. It is very easily seen that the zero degree and 180 degree angles are associated with the peaks in the cattle cycle. while the troughs are associated with the 90 and 270 degree angles.
Electromagnetic changes in the environment have been shown to affect a wide range of biological systems. Emergency ambulance statistical data accumulated in Moscow during March 1983-October 1984 have been analyzed. Diurnal numbers of urgent hospitalization of patients in connection with suicides, mental disorders, myocardial infarction, defects of cerebrum vessels and arterial and venous diseases have been examined. Intensity and duration of planetary geomagnetic storms were used as magnetic activity indices. Comparison of geomagnetic and medical data rows has shown that at least 75% of magnetic storms caused increase in hospitalization of patients with the above-mentioned diseases on 30-80% at average. The dependence of the value of biotropic effect on the duration of effect and intensity of magnetic storm is observed.
A controversial body of literature demonstrates associations of geomagnetic storms (GMS) with numerous cardiovascular, psychiatric and behavioural outcomes. Various melatonin hypotheses of GMS have suggested that temporal variation in the geomagnetic field (GMF) may be acting as an additional zeitgeber (a temporal synchronizer) for circadian rhythms, with GMS somehow interfering with the hypothesized system. The cryptochrome genes are known primarily as key components of the circadian pacemaker, ultimately involved in controlling the expression of the hormone melatonin. Cryptochrome is identified as a clear candidate for mediating the effect of GMS on humans, demonstrating the prior existence of several crucial pieces of evidence. One mechanism of magnetoreception is thought to involve a light-dependent retinal molecular system mediated by cryptochrome, acting in a distinct functionality to its established role as a circadian oscillator. It is hypothesized that the cryptochrome compass system is mediating stress responses more broadly across the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis (including alterations to circadian behaviour) in response to changes in the GMF. It acts as a stress response to unexpected signals to the magnetosense. It is therefore proposed that GMS lead to disorientation of hormonal systems in animals and humans, thus explaining the effects of GMS on human health and behaviour
Six physiological parameters of cardio-vascular system of rabbits and ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were investigated during two planetary geomagnetic storms. At the initial and main phase of the storm the normal circadian structure in each cardiovascular parameter was lost. The asynchronicity was growing together with the storm and abrupt drop of cardiac activity was observed during the main phase of storm. The main phase of storm followed by the destruction and degradation of cardiomyocytes. Parameters of cardiac activity became substantially synchronized and characterised by circadian rhythm structure while the amplitude of deviations was still significant at the recovery stage of geomagnetic storm.
Previous research showed, most notably in the University of Colorado’s unpublished study of the relationship between the orbits of Saturn and Jupiter and the sunspot cycle that there was indeed a connection between these two cycles. In this study they were able to show that there was a statistically significant relationship between the angular positions of Jupiter and Saturn and the sunspot cycles’ variations. They also refer to historic studies going back to the nineteenth century, notably by Carrington, which theorized that the positions of the planets had an effect on solar activity. The University of Colorado study proposes a tidal effect, but this is very hard to prove through conventional physics. This presentation was largely based upon the work of Nicola Scarfetta of Duke University and his research into planetary cycles, sunspots and climate change. 5,6,7,8,9,10 Similar models were previously put forth where these various cycles affecting climate variations were put force earlier by Theodor Landsheidt who also invoked planetary tidal forces.11,12,13,14,
Associations have also been demonstrated across wider health studies, correlating geomagnetic activity with the total number of deaths. Correlations have also been reported between solar cycles and longevity, although such findings remain equivocal. A further series of studies have revealed associations between the solar cycle and flu pandemics, and a similar relationship was recently reported with papillomavirus infections. Relationships have also been observed between geomagnetic activity and sudden infant death syndrome and epilepsy. 1
It appears that the cause of this is in part electromagnetic and that the planets are cutting the lines of force of the interplanetary magnetic field and feeds back this energy back upon the sun causing the observed phenomena. NASA has observed electromagnetic conduits between the earth and the sun and they have also observed pulses of energy being released by the earth’s own magnetic field as result of these interactions. The background electromagentic field of the solar system is much denser, by about 100 times, than what would be expected and there is of yet no explanation for this variation. It would appear from the observations that I have made that the planets are acting as amplifiers for the interplanetary magnetic field and that the conduits that have been observed between the sun and the earth are also present between the sun and the other planets as well.
Recent scientific studies involving DNA, water, the environment and magnetic fields, lend support to the hypothesis that magnetic fields can carry biologically relevant information. The authors of a 2011 study conducted by Nobel laureate Luc Montagnier et al., say DNA in their experiments teleported itself to distant cells through electromagnetic signals. Furthermore, they indicated that this information could instruct the re-creation of DNA when the basic constituents of DNA are present and coupled with extremely low electromagnetic frequency fields.
Explaining movements in daily stock prices is one of the most difficult tasks in modern finance. The existing literature by documents the impact of geomagnetic storms on daily stock market returns. A large body of psychological research has shown that geomagnetic storms have a profound effect on people's moods, and, in turn, people's moods have been found to be related to human behavior, judgments and decisions about risk. An important finding of this literature is that people often attribute their feelings and emotions to the wrong source, leading to incorrect judgments. Specifically, people affected by geomagnetic storms may be more inclined to sell stocks on stormy days because they incorrectly attribute their bad mood to negative economic prospects rather than bad environmental conditions. Misattribution of mood and pessimistic choices can translate into a relatively higher demand for riskless assets, causing the price of risky assets to fall or to rise less quickly than otherwise. There is strong empirical support in favor of a geomagnetic-storm effect in stock returns after controlling for market seasonals and other environmental and behavioral factors. Unusually high levels of geomagnetic activity have a negative, statistically and economically significant effect on the following week's stock returns for all U.S. stock market indices. There is evidence of substantially higher returns around the world during periods of quiet geomagnetic activity.
In order to try to unravel the connection between the levels of solar activity, changes in the earth’s climate and the positions of the planets I looked at the timing of the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn and the number of sunspots at these times. I began with the assumption that the cycle would begin and end with these conjunctions and also with the oppositions. It was presumed that these would show the individual peaks in the sunspot cycle. I used the standard Wolf number graphs from 1749 to the present day and found that the general curve between the expected timing of sunspot minima and maxima in fact agreed quite well, the peaks were often phase shifted for periods of time and then would return to in-phase conditions. (See chart 2.)
Chart 2, The above graph is of the Wolf numbers for sunspots since 1749.
By plotting only the timing of the minima and maxima of the sunspots I then compared this to the timing of the conjunctions, oppositions and quadratures of Jupiter and Saturn. (See chart 3.)
Chart3. A plot of the timing of the sunspot minima and maxima since 1820.
The first thing I noticed with the above graph is that there appeared to be a bunching up, a shortening of the cycles in the1850’s and the 1950’s. Of course the Jupiter and Saturn cycles showed no such harmonic peculiarities as shown in the graph below. (See chart4.)
Chart 4. As is evident the Jupiter and Saturn cycles are very regular, but also present a very similar pattern to the sunspot cycle, When these two cycles are combined we can see that while the agreement between them is quite good the peaks between the maxima and minima are often phased shifted by 90 degrees. (See chart 5.)
Chart 5. Combined cycles of Jupiter and Saturn and the sunspot cycles since 1800. Observe that a number of the peaks are exactly aligned, This is apparent between 1860 and 1900 and around 1960 and with cycles just after 2000. The pattern suggests that there was a phase shift between the two cycles that periodically occurred. Why this phase shift should be occurring was at first not clear. The conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn occurred in 1901 and we can see from the above graph that before this time the two cycles were in close alignment since about 1850 and after that there is an increasing phase shift that lasts until about 1952 when there is a single cycle in perfect alignment and then again the phase shift approaches zero in 2000. In 1897 Saturn and Uranus were in conjunction and this appears to have stimulated the shift in phase between the two cycles. When we look at the harmonic pattern seen in the first graph of the sunspot maxima and minima we can see that there is a contraction in the length of the periods between the maxima and minima of the sunspot cycles in the 1850’s and in the late 1940’s through the 1950’s.
If we take the curve Jupiter and the Saturn cycle and introduce a phase shift in the polarity of the cycles by adding an extended minima in 1895 and again in 1985. An extended maxima was added in 1855 and in 1955. When we compare the two the maxima and minima agrees in fourteen out of seventeen cycles where the only anomalies occur near to the points where the polarity changes. (See chart 6.)
Chart 6. The conjunction of Saturn and Uranus occurred in 1898 and it also occurred in 1987.This cycle is about 45 years and so this period represents two cycles between the planets. It appears that these particular conjunctions were pivotal in changing the polarity of the Saturn and Jupiter cycle to keep it aligned with the sunspot cycle. The agreement between the two curves, the Saturn/Jupiter curve and the sunspot cycle are statistically extremely significant. In fact there is no meaningful difference between the two sets of data. The most likely cause of this phenomena is that the basis is electrical and that the interchanges of energy seen by NASA in the form of massive electro-magnetic conduits between the sun and the earth must also occur with the other planets. Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and of course, Jupiter have massive electromagnetic fields and these fields must interact electrically. The relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn follow a simple dynamo pattern as in an electrical alternator. When the planets are either, depending on the polarity of the cycle, at angle of 90, or 270 degrees, or at zero or 180 degrees the two fields cancel each other out and this appears to dissipate the storms on the sun.
The dynamo of Jupiter and Saturn must be created by the planets cutting the lines of force of the interplanetary electromagnetic field as the two planets orbit the sun. (See image 1.)
At times they amplify each other and at other times they cancel each other’s fields out. This would also seem to explain where the additional energy that is observed to exist in the interplanetary magnetic field comes from. This polarity change appears to occur in the decade following the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter. The same phenomena is seen to be observed in the polarity change in the 1950’s, only this time in 1955 there is a conjunction of Jupiter and Uranus. The conjunction of Saturn and Uranus occurred a little earlier in 1941 and this was at the same general time frame as the Jupiter/Saturn conjunction. As a result of the close timing of all three conjunctions this did not stimulate a polarity change. As result the conjunction of Jupiter and Uranus was responsible for the delayed phase shift in 1955 resulting in an extended maxima. In 1853 around the time of the first observed polarity change there was another conjunction of Saturn and Uranus. The largest polarity changes that are seen in the harmonics of the sunspot cycle occurred in the periods around 1855 and 1945. This is a period of two Saturn and Uranus cycles once more.
Image 1. An image of the structure of the interplanetary magnetic field.
The heliospheric current sheet is a three-dimensional form of a Parker spiral that results from the influence of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the plasma in theinterplanetary medium. (http://wso.stanford.edu/gifs/helio.gif)
The University of Colorado studies’ conclusion was that the tidal effects caused by the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn were the prime energizers that regulated the solar cycle. The problem with this being wholly gravitational in nature is that polarity changes due to the conjunctions Saturn and Uranus on very predictable time scale. In electrical systems this is quite easily accomplished. The conjunctions merely act as a switch which reverses the flow of the the electrical circuit. In the Colorado study they suggest it must be a type of gravitational amplification unknown in modern physics.
I examined the relationship between the gravitational tidal effects of Jupiter and Saturn in relation to the magnitude and timing of the sunspot cycle and I found it did not follow strict gravitational formulae. If we use the mass times the distance squared the effects are too small to measure. Another problem was that where to begin the cycle. I noticed that the last few maxima of solar activity cycle occurred when Jupiter was between sixty and ninety degrees of ecliptic longitude. I presumed from this then that the peak could be taken to occur at a given ecliptic longitude for the position of Jupiter at the time of greatest maxima. This appeared to be at 270 degrees of ecliptic longitude, which happens also to be in this era the position of the galactic center. What I found was that if you took the ratio of the mass of Jupiter and Saturn respectively as 134 and 40 multiplied by the sine of half the angle between each planet and the center of the galaxy and then add the two resultants together you get very good approximation of the timing and the magnitude of the sunspot cycles. However, it suffers from the same problem of phase shifting as seen above.
Where Pv is the predicted value for the number of sunspots and Phi is the angle between the observed position of Saturn (Sa,) or Jupiter (Ju) to the center of the galaxy at 270 degrees of ecliptic longitude.
The harmonization of the two separate cycles discussed here is not as simple as merely adjusting the tidal cycle by the same pattern as the phase shift in the Jupiter and Saturn cycle by using the same Saturn/Uranus conjunctions. You have to take a different set of conjunctions and the effect is much less dramatic. You must add three years to the minima which occurred in the mid 1920’s and to the minima which occurred in the late 1980’s you take away the three years and the pattern falls into perfect alignment, except for the period in the 1920’s, which is out of phase. The peak in the 1930’s is slightly out of phase, but the rest is a very good match. In 1927 there was a conjunction of Jupiter and Neptune and in 1990 there was a conjunction of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. A T-test gives a correlation of 0.86 between the predicted and the actual Wolf numbers for the sunspot cycles between 1900 and the present era. (See chart 7.) When we compare this to the gravitational oscillation model of Landscheit we can see that there is in fact almost no correlation between the solar oscillations caused by the angular momentum of the planets and the sunspot wolf numbers over long periods of time. (See Chart 8.)
Chart 7. The graph above shows the correlation between the adjusted tidal effects of Jupiter and Saturn on the Sunspot cycles. Red is the Wolf numbers and blue is the prediction. It is easy to tell that there is an obvious correlation between the prediction made by the cycles of Jupiter and Saturn with the appropriate polarity changes as noted above. The Pearson correlation is r-0.515 and any value above 0.5 shows that there is a definite correlation between the two sets of data. The p value is greater than 0.00001.
Graph 8. The planetary angular momentum compared to the sunspot cycle shows almost no true correlation, although although the curves appear similar. This similarity is largely due to the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn. The gravitational model cannot allow polarity changes like the electromagnetic model. The graph clearly shows the correlation between the gravitational oscillations gradually go out of phase like a stopped clock that is correct once a day. It also fails to predict the late maxima of the present cycle which is still showing very high levels of activity with 170 sunspots on November 26th, 2014. The angular momentum model shows a peak in 2012. The electromagnetic model fully compensates for this and predicts the end of the present solar cycle maxima with the 90 degree angle between Jupiter and Saturn in the summer of 2015.
The graphs make it very apparent that there is a solid link between the relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn, the University of Colorado presentation did not mention the crucial effects of the shifts in apparent electromagnetic polarity as this study has revealed. All of the physics presented here can be explained through electrical dynamos and circuits, but the power involved is so staggeringly enormous that these results are wholly unexpected. The NASA studies which have revealed the powerful conduits that exist between the sun and the earth are the most likely circuits upon which the electrical currents flow, but to affect the sun in such a powerful way as to actually parallel the storms that are Sunspot cycle staggers the imagination. High in the earth’s electromagnetic field the space probes have observed what NASA terms X-points which are where the lines of magnetism interact and through the stresses placed upon them actually break and release vast amounts of energy. This is known as a flux transfer event. (ibid http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/30oct_ftes/) It is possible that near the surface of the sun where the conduits emanate from there are similar X-points where the bands of magnetism on the surface of the sun break and these may energise the storms on the sun. While this is partially speculation it demonstrates that there is a mechanism through which the observed effects can act. ( Hidden Portals in Earth's Magnetic Field,
While these findings are extremely significant and demonstrate that the planets do indeed affect the sun in powerful ways we must still answer the question as to why the Cattle Cycle appears to be in some ways connected to the Jupiter Saturn Cycle. To find the answer to this question we need to see if there is a correlation between the climate of the earth and the cycles of Jupiter and Saturn as well as affecting the sunspot cycle. If we look at the variation from the mean temperature of the southern hemisphere from 1860 to 1990 and we compare it to the Jupiter and Saturn Cycle we get an almost perfect match. The same phenomena of phase shifting the polarity must also be used to correlate these cycles of these two disparate phenomena. An extra fives years of minima was added to shift the phase in 1865, 1910, 1935 and 1980. In 1860 there was a Jupiter/Saturn conjunction and in 1868 Jupiter was in conjunction to Neptune. In 1906 Jupiter was again conjunct to Neptune and again in 1932. Finally in 1984 there was another conjunction of Jupiter and Neptune and in 1987 there was conjunction of Saturn and Uranus. The match between the prediction and the actual temperature change is quite astonishing and while the temperature changes are quite small the significance of this finding can’t be understated.1 (see chart 8.)
Chart 8. From this graph we can see that the prime stimulus to subtle climate variations (blue) on the earth are caused by the Jupiter/Saturn Cycle (red.) The relationship between temperature does not vary with the sunspot cycle, but rather with the direct cycles of Jupiter and Saturn. The graph for the Jupiter/Saturn Cycle was constructed by assigned a value of 0 for the conjunctions, 15 at the quadratures and 30 for the oppositions with the appropriate polarity changes as noted above. All of the polarity changes occurred around the time of a conjunction of Neptune and Jupiter. The correlation between the two sets of data is r-0.71, which is very significant for this type of data. P <0.00001.
The same procedure was used for the world as a whole from 1900 to 2000. It was discovered that the world as a whole did vary more rapidly more akin to the response of the solar cycle and their was only one polarity change during the Jupiter/Neptune conjunction in 1945. This relationship is not as coherent as for the Southern Hemisphere alone and less significant, but clearly correlated. R=0.6277 p=0.0030 (See Chart 9.) (All data courtesy of the NOAA via their website: http://appinsys.com/globalwarming/GW_Part2_GlobalTempMeasure.htm unadjusted temperatures.)
Chart 9. Global Temperatures versus the Jupiter Saturn Cycle with a polarity change in 1945 with the Neptune/Jupiter conjunction.
From these investigations we can see that the various cycles are not in complete agreement and the observed changes in the earth’s climate are not directly influenced by the sunspot cycle, but rather with the cycle of Jupiter and Saturn with changes in polarity occurring when Jupiter is in conjunction with Neptune at the end of the cycle. The possible mechanism for all of these changes may be the conduits formed between the sun and the various planets and when the conjunctions occur the conduits align causing a cascade of the X-points creating vast changes in the electromagnetic climate of the solar system. 12, (http://phys.org/news/2012-11-high-frequency-flux-events-mercury.html ) The changes in the the electromagnetic climate of the solar system may cause the atmosphere of the earth to heat up as a result of the energy input of the X-point cascades which injects energy into the earth system resulting in climate changes. These climate changes then create more, or less favorable growing conditions which in turn results in the economic cycles which are defined by the Cattle Cycle.
With these tools we should now be able to more easily predict the future for the economic cycles which affect the world’s economy and be able to predict astronomical influences over climate change. The curve of the temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere is very strongly linked to the Jupiter/Saturn cycle and not to the sunspot cycle. There is only a very loose correlation between these two factors as the polarity changes are not in sync. Nor is there a correlation between temperature changes and the magnetic orientation of the sun, which changes approximately every 22 years which is also out of sync. These factors are probably why the link between the sun and climate change has not been easily proven in the past, as it is not the prime cause of temperature variations on the earth which appear to be more closely related to the electromagnetic changes in the interplanetary field of the solar system. These changes now appear to be largely driven by the cycles of the outer gas giant planets and their geometrical relationship to each other, which is fairly easily understood through standard electromagnetic physics.
The fact that the sunspot cycle is determined by Saturn and Jupiter’s angle to the galactic center is an anomaly. It may be that the center of the galaxy acts as a negative electromagnetic pole which then polarises the galactic field. In electronics the transistor is the fundamental unit for amplification. The transistor is made up of three components, the emitter, the base, which injects the signal to be amplified and the collector, which receives the amplified signal. If we use this analogy the direction of the galactic pole acts as the emitter, and would represent a negative pole. The planets would be the base injecting small varying signals, just as is done to amplify sounds in a stereo. The amplitude of the sounds fed into the base of a transistor in a stereo is very small but is electrically positive and the variations in potential caused by the small changes in amplitude of the base caused a large change in the flow of electrons from the emitter to the collector. The collector is a ground and so is negative as well. This would be known as NPN transistor in electronics. Thus, when the electromagnetic flow of the intergalactic field is disturbed by the motions of the planets there is a proportionally much greater change in the flow from the galactic field to the sun. The working of the actual field are in fact more similar to the vacuum tube where the between the emitter and collector is a plate, which acts like the base and signals are fed into the plate which then greatly varies the flow between the emitter and collector through evacuated space in the tube making sounds which cannot be heard to power loudspeakers. The potential between the emitter and collector roughly estimates the degree of amplification. The intergalactic field is roughly 10-10 teslas while the sun’s field is approximately 10-4 teslas and so the potential difference is 106 teslas. Any positive potential which is injected between these two fields would then be amplified by a million times on the surface of the sun. As Jupiter and Saturn orbit the sun their respective fields amplify the potential when they are in conjunction to the center of the galaxy, or dampen it at that time depending on the polarity of the particular cycle.
Image 2 is of the equivalent electronic circuit that conforms to the observed phenomena of the electrical fields of the solar system. The circuit is a common emitter configuration which allows for abrupt changes in polarity in the circuit flow.
It seems the most apparent solution the root cause of all the related observed phenomena that the solar systems changes are electronic in nature and the solar system is a vast amplifier of the potential of the intergalactic field. This results is the very small signals of the planets being able to affect enormous changes in the solar fields’ activity and also the climate of the earth. This electronic action results finally in the changes to the economic cycles of the world characterised by the Cattle Cycle.
As a final observation the people have always looked to the sky to try to figure out why changes are occurring on the earth. Until the present time it has been nearly impossible to correlate any astronomical events with events on the earth. Now we can see that indeed the planets affect events on the earth in an extremely profound way. The Cattle Cycle drives most of the other economic cycles of the world and the stresses placed upon the system result in wars, famine and disease. All of these changes may be ameliorated by being able to predict what these changes will be in the future and to adjust the various markets to better handle the cosmic changes which are at the foundation of the entire system.
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