Planetary Aspects and the Correlation with the Timing and Rate of Terrestrial Earthquakes
Brian T. Johnston. B.Sc.
This paper will demonstrate the association between the timing and rate of earthquakes and the geocentric planetary aspects. The hypothesis is that there are more earthquakes occurring just as the closest angle between the planets of the twenty-fourth harmonic (360/24=15 degrees) is approaching, or as it termed applying, to the exact angle than the period, or separating angle, just after the event has occurred. Not all aspects are able to be correlated with earthquakes as there are tens of aspects for every earthquake greater than 6 on the Richter scale, but rather that when there is sufficient pressure built up in the fault lines to make an earthquake immanant, then it is more likely to happen during the period of applying aspects compared to other times. Previously published research by the author has shown that there is a significant statistical correlation between the timing of earthquakes and the timing of the geocentric aspects of the planets. This research involved tens of thousands of earthquakes and over 6,000 hours of investigative work and observations taking place over the last eighteen years. The preliminary studies undertaken during the 1990’s and early 2000’s strongly indicated that the pattern of earthquakes can be correlated with the timing of planetary aspects between the planets with respect to one another from the vantage point of the earth. What was found in the historical studies was that earthquakes could be correlated with the aspects and that they also tended to occur just before an aspect happens with a large degree of statistical significance. This paper re-examines and elaborates upon these findings and illustrates that the correlations previously uncovered can be shown to be valid over long periods of time. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This is a study of the relationship between the planetary aspects and the rate of quakes that occur over time on the earth. Planetary aspects are precise angles that are formed between the planets as they orbit the sun. From the vantage point of the earth they form these angles due to the relative position between the planets and the position of the planet in it’s orbit. These angles, or aspects have been claimed by astrologers since time immemorial to be responsible for many natural disasters, including earthquakes.1 Earthquakes were chosen as the events to study as they are all very similar events in nature and repeat on an apparently random basis and a phenomena for which there has never been observed any kind predictable of pattern during which they occur. Astrologers have also claimed that events tend to occur more more frequently, but not exclusively, before an aspect occurs. Earthquakes should then tend to occur more frequently just before the timing of the actual aspect and drop off after the aspect happens. There has never been a comprehensive study undertaken to validate, or disprove this claim, although several researchers have started preliminary studies.2,3,4,5,6 There have also been highly publicized theories that claimed that grand planetary alignments with most of the planets near conjunction on one side of the sun would create enough tidal force on the earth to produce very large earthquakes, such as The Jupiter Effect.7 This paper will show that there is a correlation the angular relationships between the planets and the timing and rate of earthquakes over time. All the aspects used in this study are geocentric, in other words as observed from the vantage point of the earth. (See Figure 1.)
Figure 1. This is a Ptolemaic, geocentric view of the solar system including the outer planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, unknown in Ptolemaic times. This map is for the exact time that Jupiter was in opposition (180 degrees) to Pluto on May 20, 2014. The numbers around the outside on the lines are ecliptic longitude. The earth is the green at the centre and then the orbits of the planets are as follows Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The lines between the planets are the aspects made between the planets and the colour represents the aspecting planet. An inner planet always aspects an outer planet as the inner planet has a greater velocity than an outer planet. Each aspect noted in the diagram above is less than one degree from the perfect angle. The moon is at 90 degrees to Uranus, 180 degrees to Jupiter and 0 degrees to Pluto. Mercury and Venus make no aspects. The Sun is at 165 degrees to Mars and Mars is at 90 degrees to Jupiter and Pluto and 180 degrees to Uranus. Jupiter is at 180 degrees to Pluto and 90 degrees to Uranus and finally Uranus is at 90 degrees to Pluto. These angles of 0, 90 and 180 degrees made up the asterism known as a Grand Cross.
Preliminary studies of the relationship between the timing of earthquakes and planetary aspects were made and published in The International Astrologer, the Journal of The International Society for Astrological Research8, and by the University Center for Astrological Research (CURA) in Paris, France9, by the author in the late 1990’s and the early 2000’s to examine which, if any factors used by astrologers to determine the nature of events were valid and would able to be correlated with the rate and timing of earthquakes. (See note 1.) Since ancient times the planets have been associated with events on the the earth, such as earthquakes. Ptolemy in his Tetrabiblos, written in the second century AD states that when Mars is in opposition to Saturn there will be earthquakes (Book IV, Chapter 8. “si sint oppositi secundum longitudinem.”) If the suspected links between the planets positions and events on earth can be shown to have some correlation then the assumptions made by the Ancients in some degree was correct.
The methodology used to collect and analyse the data was to record the timing of earthquakes and then to determine what the positions of the planets were at the same moment as when the earthquakes occurred. Then the positions were studied to see if the aspect that was nearest to being a perfect angle, such as exactly 120 degrees, was applying, or separating. This was taken as the primary trigger aspect as at any given time there are several different aspects occurring in the range of plus, or minus one degree from the perfect angle. An aspect is created when an inner planet, that is a planet with an orbit of smaller diameter makes a perfect angle with an outer planet, being a planet with a larger orbital radius. Retrogradation, or the apparent reverse apparent motion, of the planets was also taken into account and as the planet approaches the perfect angle with another planet even when it is retrograde in motion is also considered to be an applying aspect. The fact that from random samples it can be seen that the probability of any aspect a any random time may be applying, or separating is a 50/50 split. The results can then be analysed by a simple coin toss analysis where the number of tails, in this instance separating aspects, is subtracted from the number of heads, applying aspects and then using this as the to which the number two is raised. The probability of a coin landing heads, or tails is 50/50, the same as the probability of finding an applying, or separating aspect between the planets. It is also like if you take a penny and double it every time you have a positive result and divide it by two when you get a negative result over a period of time if the results are more in favour of the positive results you will accumulate a great deal of money as a result. For example if we have a coin toss where 20 times you get heads when a coin is tossed and you only get two tails then the probability that this will occur by random chance is 2 to the 16th power, or 65,536 to one odds against chance for this to occur randomly. The formula is P=2X-2Y, where X is heads and Y is tails, or this case applying aspects and Y is separating aspects. This same data is the analysed through binomial distribution, which affords similar, but lower probabilities.
To find the significance of the data for the periodicity of earthquakes and if it follows any stable patterns, such as the five day wave discussed later in the paper, Pearson correlations were used. Pearson Correlations are used to determine if two sets of data are in agreement in so far as whether the high and low peaks are in similar or the same time frames as the data being analysed. In other words do the peaks and valley of the curves from the two sets of data agree. Any correlation above 0.50 is considered to be very significant with the significance increasing as the correlation between the two set of data approaches one, which is a perfect correlation.
Poisson distributions are also employed to illustrate the distribution of the events for each aspects deviation from an angle of the 24th harmonic from the exact aspect. For the main study from the 18th of February to the first of May there is also generated a random theoretical data set for the same number of events and this is plotted as well. A t-test was undertaken between the two sets of data and the probability of the null hypothesis is calculated.
All data was collected exactly as it was displayed as a result of the search engine of the USGS website (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/database) with no sorting of data in any way. Only earthquakes greater than 6.0 were used and no earthquakes greater than 6.0 on the Richter Scale were omitted. The data base for the earthquakes was derived via the search feature on the USGS website.16 No filters were used to clean the data and only the raw data provided by the website was used with no alterations. All earthquakes greater than 2.5 on the Richter scale for the historical studies were used as the criteria for quake selection.
During the initial studies which took place in the 1990’s data was randomly gathered to analyse to see if any astrological factors could be correlated with earthquakes. This finally resulted in database of 1453 earthquakes for which horoscopes were erected to the exact second of time and to the minute of longitude and latitude for the locations of the earthquake events. In this instance a horoscope is a map of the sky plotting the exact positions of the planets in ecliptic longitude. The computer program Solar Fire was used for these calculations which and is accurate for the positions of the planets to the arc second and for the moon to less than 10 arc seconds. The aspects were calculated the the nearest arc minute. The first and main test of the hypothesis was to see whether, or not the earthquakes would occur more frequently just before, or just after an aspect occurred. The results were compared with random times for periods when there were no earthquakes and an equal number of random times were analysed. This study confirmed that the probability for a random time having the closest aspect to a perfect angle being applying, or separating was equal with 50% chance for each, so completely random.
The main event that this paper focusses upon is the Grand Cross of Planets which involved the Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Pluto. During this event all of these planets were at either 0, 90, or 180 degrees to one another forming an apparent cross in the sky. This was considered to have peaked when the giant planet Jupiter was at 90 degrees, or square to Uranus and in opposition to Pluto on the 19th and 20th of April, 2014. The main study period for this article was over the preceding weeks and months as the planets were in approaching this configuration and the over the following six weeks after the 20th of April until May 1st, 2014.
The premise is that if no astrological factors have any effect that is detectable on any physical system on the earth such as earthquakes, then there can be no astrological effects and the Ancients may have been wrong in their assertion that there were astrological effects. The purpose of this article is to show that there are planetary influences that can be measured and studied and indeed the planets do affect life on earth in both subtle and profound ways. The idea that this knowledge was also available, if verified, to the Ancients and has influenced thusly influenced the development of mysticism and religion in all eras of history, is also discussed.
To summarize the previously published studies,17 what was found was that with the final database of 1453 earthquakes greater than 2.5 on the Richter scale, 61.5% of the earthquakes occurred when the planetary aspect that was closest to the exact angle of the aspect was applying, in other words before the planet was at the actual perfect angle of the aspect, and 38.5% of the quakes occurred during separating aspects. It was also found with a study involving 1,975 earthquakes that the frequency of all earthquakes greater than 2.5 on the Richter scale increased in the three days leading up to the time of the aspect and peaked in the day before the actual astronomical event took place. (See Figure 2.) These observations demonstrated an increase in the rate of earthquakes in the three days leading up to quakes, which peak on the day before the actual aspect occurs, and then drops back to baseline within two days after the aspect occurs, about five days for the cycle to transpire. This is relevant due to the fact that the aspects of the 24th harmonic are 15 degrees each and when you divide 360 by 45, which is 3 times 15, then you get five, which will be shown to be relevant later in this paper.
Historic Observations of Seismic activity and Astronomical Observations
The first figure shows the number of earthquakes greater than 2.5 on the Richter scale for each day before and after The five aspects that were selected for this study in 1999. These aspects were chosen as they were the only aspects during the entire fall of 1999 to not have any other concurrent aspects during the during the periods when each of them were in effect for any planet outside the orbit of the earth. The reason for this was so that the effects of the aspects could be isolated from the the possible effects of other planetary aspects. The aspects that met the prescribed criteria were Jupiter square (90 degrees) Neptune on October 10th, 1999, Saturn square Uranus on November 14, 1999, Mars at 120 degrees to Saturn on November 4, 1999, Mars at 60 degrees to Uranus, September 22, 1999 and Mars at 120 degrees to Jupiter on October 17, 1999 .
Figure 2.: A Number of aspects between the outer planets were studied (1A-1E,) as seen in the graphs above for earthquakes greater than 2.5, and the number of quakes per day for the 3 days before and 2 days after the timing of the aspect were tallied for all the aspects and the resulting curve is noted above This final graph illustrates beautifully the geo-seismic response to the planetary aspects as a whole. For this graph all of the earthquakes that occurred on each of the respective days prior to, during and after each aspect was added together and the result were graphed. On aspect day –3 the sum of the number of events is 247. On day –2 the number of earthquakes rises to 309. Day –1 continued the increase to 454 earthquakes. This number starts to decline on the aspect day to 345. Aspect day +1 continues this decline with a sum of 267 events which continues with only 255 events on day +2. The last day under study has a sum of 270 events. This clearly shows there appears to be a correlation that exists between the timing of the aspects and the timing of earthquakes. It also indicates that the peak actually occurs slightly before the time of the aspect. There are almost twice as many earthquakes Day-1 as on Days -3, +1 and +2, in other words on average there are twice as many earthquakes on the day before a major aspect when compared to other days. It is also the rarity of these events to consider. Saturn square Uranus only occurs once every 40 years, Jupiter square Neptune every 14 years and the Mars aspects only once every three years. These particular aspects were chosen both due to their rarity and due to the fact that no other planetary aspects were occurring during the time periods in question to contaminate the results.
The Grand Cross of Planets 2014
From the above studies, it was shown that there appeared to be a link between the orbital positions of the planets and natural physical phenomena, in the form of earthquakes, on the earth.18 It was necessary to undertake an additional study to see if timing of aspects could be confirmed to be associated significantly with a peak in the number of earthquakes in the period just before an aspect forms as indicated in the historical studies. In an attempt to replicate these earlier studies a detailed series of observations which were made of the rare geometrical configuration, known as a Grand Cross by astrologers, between the planets Mars, Jupiter, Uranus and Pluto. The main event was to occur on April 20th when Jupiter made an exact square of 90 degrees to Uranus and was in opposition to Pluto at 180 degrees. Observations started on February 18th., 2014 and were continued until May 1st., 2014. Only earthquakes greater than 6.0 were observed as the astrologers were anticipating there to major physical events to happen during this period.19,20,21
During the period of the observations there were 46 earthquakes greater than 6.0 on the Richter scale. Over the previous year there were 158 earthquakes of this magnitude,22 this already indicates a possible anomaly as this period of 71 days is 19.5% of a year and there would be then expected there to be about 31 earthquakes, or about 50% more earthquakes expected for this timespan than were actually observed. Of the 46 quakes, 34 occurred just before an aspect occurred and only 12 occurred just after an aspect occurred. As there is a fifty percent chance for an earthquake to occur before and aspect and the same afterwards, then the odds against chance for this are 222 odds against chance that the planetary aspects are not associated with the earthquakes timings, or 4,194,304 to one.23 Well beyond the 5 sigma required by the Astrophysical Union for a true observation.24 The binomial distribution is p=0.00055. If we take what the actual deviation from the true aspect that the closest aspects angle was and analyse the distribution when compared to a randomly generated database calculated from the expected model this is too found to be significant at the 99% confidence level. The T-value is 2.685741. The P-Value is 0.008617. The result is significant at p < 0.01. (See Figures 3 and 4.)
Figure 3. This graph shows distribution of the deviation for the arc between the actual separations of the planets and the perfect geometrical angle of the various aspects of the 4th. harmonic over the 71 days of the study period from February 18th. to May 1st., 2014. (Values in arcminutes.)
Figure 4. Random distribution based upon theoretical values for the same number of events as the study period.
Further observations for the number of earthquakes of earthquakes of this magnitude to occur between September, 2013 and May 5, 2014 were carried out and graphed. This observational time span was then divided into five day segments and the number of earthquakes to occur for every five day period was tallied. It was found that the period preceding the April 20th period was the highest peak on the graph with nine earthquakes occurring between the 8th and the 13th and five more from the 14th to the 18th of magnitude 6.0 or greater on the Richter Scale.
It was also discovered that by dividing the period into five day segments a sign sine wave of earthquake frequency appeared. In the Study period there was definite sine wave where during one five day period there would be a maxima of earthquakes and in the next period there was a minima of quakes. (See Figure 5.) When the entire span from September, 2013 to May, 2014 was examined it was noted that this sine wave was evident during the entire study period. It would go periodically through a polarity change where there would be two five day periods at an elevated level, then it would return to the sine wave periodicity. Other periods were examined such as three days and seven days, but there was no indication of any periodicity in these cycles. Only the five day period exhibited the sine wave phenomena. The changes in polarity were found to be associated with the orbit of the earth and Venus and was associated with the aspects between them. When the earth and Venus make an aspect this tends to repeat the maxima of earthquakes for ten days and then the rate of quakes returns to a minima.
A complete analysis of the earthquakes from January 8th to May 29th. 2014, somewhat surprisingly illustrates that the second highest peak of seven quakes during the period between the 12th to the 17th of May, which was after the aspects of the grand cross occurred. During this period, however, the inner planets, Mercury and Venus, made aspects with Neptune, Uranus and Pluto. On the 12th, the sun was at 75 degrees to Neptune. and there was a 6.5 near the SE Pacific Rise. On the 14th, Venus was 90 degrees from Pluto and Mercury was 150 degrees to Pluto as well, and there was a 6.5 in Panama and a 6.1 in Micronesia. On the 15th, Mercury was 60 degrees to Uranus and Venus in conjunction to Uranus as well and there was a 6.6 in the Philippines and a 6.0 in Guadalupe. These aspects appear to have had the action of re-energizing the seismic activity observed during the grand cross in this subsequent period. After the 18th of May the number of large earthquakes return to zero for the next ten days. On the 17th Mercury was at 60 to Venus and 30 degrees to Jupiter and on the 18th Venus was at 90 degrees to Jupiter and they made no further aspects with the outer planets involved with the Grand Cross for quite some time. Taken together this appears to be that the aspects of the planets are strongly associated with the occurrence of large earthquakes. (See Figures 6 and 7. Please note the graphs are for Eastern Standard Time and as a result there were only earthquakes as the peak in the period from April 8 to 13th, 1999. When the results are gathered in UTC, then we get nine earthquakes for this period.)
An Apparent Five Day Periodicity in the Rate of Large Earthquakes
Figure 6. For the period leading up to April 20th, 2014 there was a periodicity where for five days the number of large earthquakes was high, and the during the following five day period the number of quakes was low. The highest peak of 8 occurred during the time frame of the Grand Cross between Pluto, Uranus, Jupiter and Mars, or April 8th-13th, while the second highest peak of 7 was during the period when the inner planets made aspects to Neptune, Uranus and Pluto from May 12th to the 17th.
Another notable feature of this time period was the 8.2 quake that occurred off the coast of Chile near Iquique on April 1st was the 13th. largest earthquake ever recorded.25 This was the day that the sun was conjunct to Uranus, one of planets involved with Grand Cross that was to occur on the 20th of April. The sun was only 17 arcminutes from the exact conjunction with Uranus and applying. This was very large quake with an energy of about 15 megatons of TNT.26 Another possibly significant observation is that in December 2013 there were very few earthquakes and there were also very few aspects of the outer planets. The exception was the 120 degree, or trine aspect, between Jupiter and Saturn.
Figure 7. The periodicity of 5 days in the frequency of large earthquakes can be shown to be a standard phenomena of the timing of earthquakes as seen in this graph of large earthquakes between September 2013 and May 2014 where the number of large earthquakes greater than 6. are grouped into five day periods. It can also be seen that the period preceding April 20th, when the 90 degree angle between Jupiter and Uranus and 180 degrees to Pluto took place is the highest point on the graph for the whole period. The lowest period on the graph represents December 2013 when there were few outer planetary aspects.
Additional studies were subsequently undertaken to attempt to determine if the five day sinusoidal pattern in the rate of earthquakes would hold for longer periods of time. As was mentioned, if the rate of earthquakes is subdivided into various periods of days the shorter periods of less than five days reduce the data into units that are too small to show any distribution pattern and longer periods have a similar effect in that the data does not appear to show any obvious pattern in it’s distribution. The pattern appears to be very consistent over long periods of time, but it also appears to undergo phase shifts where the rate may remain high, or low for more than one period of five days and then it resumes the initial 5 day pattern once more, possibly due to interactions between the Earth and Venus. The graph below charts the period from August 2013 to November 2014 and clearly demonstrates that the five day pattern is very apparent. The wavelength of the sine wave from peak to peak is then 10 days. ( See figures 8 to 13, also Table 2)
Figure 8. Sums of earthquakes between August, 2013 and November 2014. This graph shows the sums of the number of earthquakes for every five day period during this time span.
Figure 9. Five day sums for the period from August, 2012 to November, 2014, EST. The high peak in May 2014 is during the period of the Grand Cross of Planets and the the other high peak is in June when the sun and the inner planets made aspects to Pluto, Uranus, Mars and then Jupiter, the planets involved in the Grand Cross. It is apparent that the five day periodicity to the large earthquake frequency remains even over this period of time. The trend line shows that the actual rate of large earthquakes is very regular and steady. By examining a longer period it becomes more evident what stimulates the polarity changes in the sine wave. This seems to be associated with periods where there an excess of aspects in a short time, or a lack of them. The highest peak during this timespan was from February 4th to the 8th, 2013. During the period from the 3rd of February to the 13th, 2013 there were 21 planetary aspects. From January 9th to March 5th there were 84 planetary aspects. The average number of aspects for the ten day periods bracketing the February 3-13 time frame was 15.75. The period then for this period was 33% above the average.
Figure 10. This illustrates the polarity changes where there is an extended maxima, or minima where the polarity of the sine wave reverses, but continues the same 5 day beat pattern. The black line is the plot of a standard 5 day periodic wave with the polarity changes incorporated. The resulting five day pattern matches the pattern of the earthquake sums very well. The period for each of these extended graphs is from August 8th, 2012 to November 18th, 2014.
Figure 11. Here we have the regular five day sine wave overlaid without polarity changes, in black, on the polarized sine wave, in red, from Figure 9. The red areas indicate where the polarity of the curves are opposite. What is significant here is that the pattern does not just drift across the five day wave like a stopped clock’s time will drift across a plot of the actual time, but rather exhibits discrete polarity changes abruptly and then changes back to the same polarity with equal abruptness. Instead of displaying the expected stopped clock pattern what appears is an irregular beat pattern, sort of like a person with an irregular heartbeat. The polarity at the start of the observation period is the same polarity as at the end of the period. The blue is the earthquake sums for each day period. What this illustrates is that for the majority of the time the five day wave correlates with the actual frequencies of the earthquakes, but that it undergoes erratic polarity changes and then turns to the previous polarity.
Figure 12. The black line represents the adjustments to the sine wave taking into account every extended maxima and minima observed the earthquake sums periodicity as well as the changes in polarity already noted. The red is the actual earthquake sums for each five day period. The five day periodicity is interrupted and then then continues in the opposite polarity and then reverses at the next extended maxima, or minima. A Pearson correlation gives the results r=0.685 with p<0.00001. Table one details the planetary aspects that occurred during each of the lettered peaks in earthquake activity (See Appendix, Table 1.)
Figure 13. This graph illustrates that the five periodicity of the earthquake frequencies has remained stable to the present day with very little deviation in the trend line as reflected in the extremely small r^2 value. What this also clearly shows is that the trend is completely flat, but in Figure 11 the trend line is ascending over time. The increase in the previous figure was the result of the increase in the number of earthquakes that occurred during the period of the Grand Cross of Planets. In the succeeding year the curve has normalized and the reduction in the overall number of earthquakes is reflected in this.
Is Gravity the Cause of the Apparent Relationship Between the Timing of the Earthquakes and the Planetary Aspects?
By observing the spin rate of the earth we can see whether the gravitational effect of the planets as expressed as a deviation in the spin rate of the earth has an effect on the rate of earthquakes observed during the Grand Cross study period. What we can see is that the spin rate of the earth decreased around March 16th, the 29th of March, the 15th of April and the 24th of April. During the main study period there were several key aspects between Venus and other planets and this did seem to correlate with the greatest changes in the earth's spin rate. On April 24th. as the spin rate of the earth was reaching a minima for the period and the spin rate decreased, Venus was at 120 degrees to Saturn. On April 14th Venus was 45 degrees to the Sun and again the spin rate decreased. On April 1st Venus was at 135 degrees to Jupiter and at 45 degrees to Pluto and once again we can see that the spin rate was rapidly declining during this period. On the 16th of March, Venus was at 150 degrees to Jupiter and then the next day was at 60 degrees to Uranus. Once a again this was period where the earth's spin rate declined.
While any association between changes in the spin rate and earthquakes is as of yet anecdotal it is highly suggestive that there is an association between planetary aspects and changes in the spin rate of the earth. The previous studies do show an association between earthquakes, however. The standard model of gravitation would not predict any changes in the spin rate of the earth with most of the planetary aspects. The only aspects that could possibly perturb the earth’s spin rate would be 0 degrees, 90 degrees and 180 degrees, which are also aspects of the 24th harmonic. (See Figure 14.) The period around April 20th shows an increase in the spin rate of the earth. On May 4th the spin rate of the earth was at it’s greatest and on this day the Sun was at 60 degrees to Jupiter. This was associated with 4 earthquakes greater than 6.0 during that period. There was a 6.6 in Fiji, followed by a 6.0 near the same place. Then there was a 6.0 in Japan and finally on the morning of the 5th, there was 6.0 in Thailand. This is a strong association with the aspect of the Sun and Jupiter and is an indicator that the 60 degree aspect between the Sun and Jupiter was responsible for the increase the earth’s spin rate. The angles of the aspects, except as noted above, are not theorized to have any apparent effect on the spin rate of the earth and there is no logical reason to assume that the changes in its spin rate are due to gravitation. However, there may be an argument to support an electromagnetic cause for the change in the spin rate as will be discussed in the next section.
One possible indication that gravity plays a role in the changes of the earth's spin rate is that the two highest peaks on the graph, or slowest spin rate, March 30th and April 28th are also new moons, The moon in the aspect of zero degrees to the Sun, showing that there may be a vital element involved here. The other smaller peaks are near the full moons, the Moon at opposition to the Sun, of March and April. It takes an enormous amount of energy to change the spin rate of the earth. The new and full moons correspond with a decrease in the spin rate apparently without any associated earthquake activity, however.
Figure 14. On this chart the higher points represent a longer day. The lowest points on the graph represent the higher spin rates of the earth. The period from April 4th to the 8th shows a high spin rate, during this period Mercury made aspects to Pluto, Uranus, Jupiter and the Sun. Also, the period just before April 20th the graph shows a low spin rate and then a rapid rise in the spin rate after the 20th in the spin rate of the earth. The next rise in the spin rate was about May 4th to the 6th when the sun was moving first at 120 degrees to Pluto, then 30 degrees to Uranus and finally at 60 degrees to Jupiter on May 6th. Image courtesy of NASA.
Analysis of the Results of the Observations and the Orbital Harmonics of the Solar System
We can begin to see from the observations that in fact the planetary aspects do appear to be associated in time and space with the timing of earthquakes. The evidence is also suggestive of the fact that the planetary aspects affect the spin rate of the earth, which may be a contributing physical mechanism broadly responsible for the changes in the number of earthquakes that are associated with these events, but these effects cannot, through applying standard physics, be attributed to the effects of gravitation, but an argument can be made that the effects are due to electromagnetism.
The beat frequency patterns, the result from subtracting the lower frequency from the higher of two frequencies, observed in the data for the rate of large earthquakes over time are most likely a result of the interacting frequencies of the planets involved. What remains a mystery is where these vibrations are coming from.
The most likely progenitor of the five day periodicity in the waveforms are the orbital resonances of the participating planets. It appears, if this is the source of the phenomena, that these resonances are amplified at certain geometrical angles which correspond to the angles of the 24th. harmonic. The 5 day beat frequency of the rate of large earthquakes observed is very likely due to the heliocentric orbital period of Venus. The period of Venus is 225 days. when we divide 225 by 15 we get 15 days, almost the exact period of the orbit of the earth divided by 24 and 225 is 15 squared. We can see from this that there would be a harmonic beat frequency of five days as prime harmonic of the orbital resonance of the Earth and Venus. The 24th harmonic of the earth is about 15 days and the 24th harmonic of the period of Venus is 9.4 days, very close to the beat frequency observed. If we use the beat period formula, F1-F2, then we have 5.6 days, very close to the beat frequency observed in the data. The resolution of the data is too coarse to reveal a beat frequency difference between the observed rate of 5 days and the predicted rate of 5.6 days. As a result it is logical to conclude that the sinusoidal curve observed in the rate of large earthquakes is a result of the the 24th harmonic interactions between the orbital resonances of the Earth and Venus. I have not been able to find anything in conventional astrophysics which would explain this clearly observed phenomena, but the wave interactions seem to follow electromagnetic formulae where waves can cancel each other out, or enhance one another.
If we divide the orbital periods of the planets by the 24 we get for Mercury, 3.67 days. Venus 9.4 days, Earth (Sun) 15 days, Mars we get 28.6 days, very close to the period of the moon, Jupiter 180.5 days, divisible by 15, or just under half a year, Saturn 448 days, 1,278.5 days for Uranus, exactly 3.5 years, Neptune 2,508 days and for Pluto 3,773 days, three of these periods is exactly 31 years and for the Moon the orbital period is 27.3 days which makes the 24th harmonic frequency to be 27.3 hours. (See note 2.)
Another more comprehensive analysis of virtually all the large earthquakes in 2014 was undertaken. This study also included the Great Anchorage earthquakes, The 9.1 in Chile, the Great Tsunami quake in 2004 and the Kamchatka 8.3, which was the largest quake in 2013 for comparison. There were ninety four earthquakes in total, 64 occurred when the closest aspect to the actual angle was applying and 30 after the aspect occurred. This is 234 , or 17.2 billion to one odds against chance. The distribution show that the main peak is between 5 and 10 arcminutes before the aspect actually occurs. (See Figure 15.)
Figure 15. Great Earthquakes of 2014, January to November, 2014.
This graph shows the distribution of the deviation of the closest aspect occurring at the time of a major earthquake in arcminutes. The strong peak in the distribution is between 5 and 10 arc minutes before an aspect is the period during which the greatest number of earthquakes coincided.
Hypotheses of a Possible Physical Mechanism for the Timing of Earthquakes and Planetary Influences
There is an apparent correlation with the spin rate of the earth where when it is at it’s highest
there appears to be a greater number of planetary aspects, which is also associated with an increase in the number of earthquakes observed. While there are no known physical causes for these types of events to associate the planetary aspects and the physical phenomena that have been observed, in the 17th century Johannes Kepler wrote a book called The Harmony of the World that may have the answer to this vexing problem. In the The Harmony of the World , Kepler illustrates how musical vibrations can be related to the planets in their orbits causing harmonies and dissonances between the planets.27 These vibrations are a result of the motions of the planets in their orbits and it appears that the angles of the 24th harmonic stimulate changes in these vibrations possibly causing dissonant vibrations which disrupt the smooth motions of the earth’s tectonic plates resulting in large earthquakes. How this may occur is still a mystery which that desperately needs to be solved. It may be that these “musical” vibrations are passed through the interplanetary medium via the interplanetary magnetic field.
An Electromagnetic Theory to Explain the Association Between the Positions of the Planets and Earthquakes
The possible explanation for what we are observing is that the triggering of earthquakes is due to electromagnetism. It may be that energy is transferred by the planetary aspects to the earth’s magnetic field and this builds up where there is already a charge where piezoelectric forces which results from the pressure on the rocks as the plates grind together. It is well documented that many electrical phenomena are associated with earthquakes.33 In the Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 37–71, 2003, there is an excellent report that addresses the problems facing geophysicists trying to understand earthquakes. The paper is titled, Rocks That Crackle and Sparkle and Glow: Strange Pre-Earthquake Phenomena, by Dr. Friedemann T. Freund, a professor in the Department of Physics, San Jose State University, and a senior researcher at NASA Ames Research Center. Dr. Freund writes:
“Many strange phenomena precede large earthquakes. Some of them have been reported for centuries, even millennia. The list is long and diverse: bulging of the Earth’s surface, changing well water levels, ground-hugging fog, low frequency electromagnetic emission, earthquake lights from ridges and mountain tops, magnetic field anomalies up to 0.5% of the Earth’s dipole field, temperature anomalies by several degrees over wide areas as seen in satellite images, changes in the plasma density of the ionosphere, and strange animal behavior. Because it seems nearly impossible to imagine that such diverse phenomena could have a common physical cause, there is great confusion and even greater controversy.”
Freund outlines the basic problem:
“Based on the reported laboratory results of electrical measurements, no mechanism seemed to exist that could account for the generation of those large currents in the Earth’s crust, which are needed to explain the strong EM signals and magnetic anomalies that have been documented before some earthquakes. Unfortunately, when a set of observations cannot be explained within the framework of existing knowledge, the tendency is not to believe the observation. Therefore, a general malaise has taken root in the geophysical community when it comes to the many reported non-seismic and non-geodesic pre-earthquake phenomena. There seems to be no bona fide physical process by which electric currents of sufficient magnitude could be generated in crustal rocks.”
A discovery that may be the source of where these massive electrical charges are coming from is that NASA has observed that a vast electromagnetic conduit exists between the sun and the earth and that vast discharges of energy are fed across the space between the earth and the sun along this massive conduit. Billions of watts of electrical energy are fed into the earth’s magnetic field every time an X-point form high in the earth’s magnetic field. When an X-point forms it is a result of the intertwining of the earth’s magnetic field lines with the sun’s magnetic field making magnetic ropes and when the ropes pull tight they pinch off at a X-point and then break. This breakage results in an enormous outburst of energy know as a flux transfer event. The intertwining in the suns’ and the earth's’ fields is also intertwined with the interplanetary field and this field also plays a role in flux transfer events. It has also been documented that there are flux transfer events on other planets, planetary moons and in deep interplanetary and possibly even interstellar space. (See Figure 16. Four images.)
Figure 16 image 1.
A view of the dayside magnetosphere from the Sun. A magnetic flux rope, or flux transfer event, stretches across the dayside magnetosphere from dawn to dusk. The rope contains magnetospheric magnetic field lines (red), interplanetary magnetic field lines (yellow), and lines that pass from the magnetosphere into interplanetary space (grey). The yellow lines are conduits along which the electromagnetic power is delivered to the earth’s field and this provides the necessary power to produce the flux transfer event. Results are from the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US model with enhanced resolution in the vicinity of the dayside magnetopause. (Image courtesy of the University of Michigan.)
Figure 16 Image 2.
A THEMIS spacecraft image of an actual flux transfer event taking place high in the earth’s magnetosphere. Image courtesy of NASA.
Figure 16 Image 3.
This image courtesy of NASA illustrates the enormous power resulting from flux transfer events. This equals 1,950,000,000 watts of being dumped into the earth’s magnetic field, more than enough power to fuel an earthquake.
Figure 16, Image 4.
Artists impression of the electromagnetic conduit which exists between to the earth and the sun. Image courtesy of NASA.
It may be that, as documented here, there are vast changes that are sometimes associated with earthquakes in the earth's magnetic field and that the build up in the charge between the plates acts like a maglev transport that allows the rock under pressure to slide past one another at a much faster rate than normal resulting in what we call and earthquake. In this scenario the pressure on the fault line under stress creates a piezoelectric charge due to the pressure on the rocks, which in effect creates a pinch in the surrounding magnetic field. This also causes electromagnetic ropes to form between the generated field and the earth’s own field eventually causing a flux transfer event as a result of the breaking of the field lines. The enormous influx of power results in an earthquake due to the there being the same magnetic polarity on both sides of the fault line which then forces the plates apart and maglevs them to a new, less stressed position.
In Electrical Engineering all 3-phase AC motors and generators are always wound to some fraction of the 24th harmonic, with 24 separate coils spaced at 15 degrees apart being an ideal configuration to deliver smooth power. The main harmonic of the sun's helioseismology, the study of how the the Sun vibrates and rings like a bell, is the 24th harmonic, with regions of opposite polarity spaced 15 degrees apart. Each segment on the sun is the of the opposite polarity to the segment on either side. In the case of earthquakes the effect of the build up in charge is to electrify the two opposing sides of the split in the rock along the fault line with the same negative polarity which eventually repels them apart, like two north poles on a magnet, allowing them to slide freely for some distance. This also explains why the spacing of the arcs between the planets by the 24th harmonic are so important as their basis is in the electrodynamic of the sun and the basics of electrical physics as applied in delivering power to the nations. (See Figure 17.)
Figure 17. The helioseismology divisions of the sun showing the prime 24th harmonic. The sun vibrates like a ringing bell and the primary harmonic is the 24th. The circumference of the sun is divided into 24 sections with each section being the polar opposite in vibration to the adjacent cells. Image courtesy of NASA.
This data suggests that earthquakes are caused by the pressure in the rocks causing a build up of magnetism which then attracts electrons. The charge builds up to such a great extent that the fault lines in the rock act act like a capacitor, as the two plates are electrically separated from each other by the crack in the rock, and if the charge has built up to such an extent due to pressure and then there is a planetary aspect this feeds additional electricity into the earth's magnetic field, which then feeds into the ground and electrifies the fault/capacitor and the repulsive force between the two sides of the fault causes them to crack and forces them apart and allows them to slip, sort of like maglev. When rocks are under pressure, as results from the movement of the tectonic plates, they generate a negative electrical charge. This is known as a piezoelectric effect. This also creates a magnetic field centred on the point of the greatest pressure, where a future earthquake will take place.
The field lines created by the fault line and the earth's magnetic field lines intertwine and create what are termed magnetic ropes. When the tension on these ropes increases due to the increased influx of electrons from the earth's magnetic field and the plates begin to move, this put so much tension on the ropes that they finally break.When they break they release an enormous discharge of energy and this results in the observed electrical effects. This is a flux transfer event34 between the field generated by the piezoelectric generator35 caused by the pressure of the plates pushing against each other and the planetary field caused by the breaking of the magnetic ropes.
This also may explain why the apparent 5 day periodicity of the earthquakes experiences polarity changes as it may be the result of electromagnetic phenomena and the flow gets reversed at times and the periods of discharges and charging become reversed due to an as yet undiscovered switching mechanism. Although, it is well documented that flux transfer events take place at various places in the solar system as well as high above the earth in the magnetic field due to the interactions of the sun’s magnetic field and the earth’s.35 Flux transfer events have also been observed on Mercury, even though it only has a weak magnetic field.36, 37 As noted above earthquakes can produce anomalies with a strength of up to 0.5% of the total magnetic field of the earth. Putting this in perspective Mercury’s magnetic field is about 1% in strength of the earth’s field, so earthquakes can produce effects as great as 50% of the Mercury’s total field where flux transfer events have been regularly observed. (See Figure 18.)
This is artistic impression of the electrodynamics involved during an earthquake. The black horizontal line is the surface of the earth. The black diagonal line is the fault line and the ‘+’ and ‘-’ signs represent the electrical charges near the event. The fine red and green lines represent the waves originating on the sun and the interplanetary magnetic field carried along by the earth’s own magnetic field. The squiggly black lines represent the field lines of both the earth and the field generated by the piezoelectric effect caused by the pressure on the rocks caused the plate on the right moving to the left. The pressure builds up creating a strong magnetic field which then interacts with the earth’s field creating magnetic ropes deep under the earth. When the energy from the planetary aspects is injected into the earth’s field There is such a buildup of charge as a result that the plates are forced apart and slide along the diagonal axis. When this happens there is a flux transfer event, represented by the yellow, and results in all the strange observed phenomena associated with earthquakes such as balls of light, lightning, colours hanging the sky and sky glow. Image courtesy of the author.
Since antiquity the hypothesis of the astrologers has been is that events are more likely to occur before a planetary aspect happens than after the celestial event and that these events included earthquakes. The observations presented here supports this assertion. During the course of the main study period it was also discovered that if the number of earthquakes were plotted for five day periods that there emerged a sine wave of earthquake frequency. The fact that Venus’ heliocentric period is 225 days and that 225 is the square of 15, added a heliocentric factor into the timing of major earthquakes. The earlier studies performed in the 1990’s were confirmed by the observations of the major earthquakes that occurred during the spring of 2014 and there were no disagreements between the finding in these two sets of data. The conclusion therefore is, that the astrologers were correct in their assertions that the planets in their orbits can be correlated with events on the earth and their timing. The extremely unexpected sinusoidal periodicity of five days in the frequency of large earthquakes is not explained by present astrophysics and must be considered to be a newly discovered attribute to the scientifically supported theory of orbital resonances and which in turn results in massive changes in the earth's magnetic field. With all the diverse phenomena associated with the planetary aspects, as we have seen: lights in the sky, strange animal behaviour and strong anomalies in the earth's magnetic field, and the fact that astrological phenomena were studied very closely by the Ancients the we must conclude that this became a fundamental facet of their mystical views of the universe and now apparently valid observation.
As a result of the observations and findings detailed in this paper we may be able to say that the planetary positions in relation to each other in the form of the planetary aspects affects the planet, nations, cities and individuals as a result of their interactions. How profoundly and how deeply we are affected by these kinds of planetary vibrations detected by the rate of earthquakes and their changes is largely still a matter of conjecture and is fuel for future research.
No factors used by the astrologers, such as the signs of the zodiac10, the point where the zodiac intersects the eastern horizon, known as the ascendant,11 the point where the ecliptic intersects the horizon on the east. The midheaven12, the point where the zodiac is intersected by the local meridian, or any of the houses, the twelve divisions of space and time around the earth, were found to be statistically significant enough in the timing, or rate of earthquakes to be included in this study. Other factors such as the eastpoint (the point due east where it intersects the horizon,) asteroids, the nodes of the moon13, planetary nodes, and arabic parts14 were all tested, but none of these factors were found to be significant in the rate, or the timing of earthquakes. All the aspects that astrologers used were tested. They are constructed by dividing the circle into various sub units by dividing the circle by various numbers such as seven, nine, ten, and twenty-four. All aspects were tested and the only aspects that seemed to have any significance were the the aspects created by divided the circle of 360 degrees by 24 to yield 15 degree sectors, otherwise known in geometry as the twenty-fourth harmonic. In fact this was the only factor tested of all the elements used by astrologers to have any significance at all in the initial studies. The only aspects that were used for these studies of the 24th harmonic were the ones traditionally used by astrologers. Zero degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, 120 degrees, 135 degrees, 150 degrees, and 180 degrees. Fifteen degrees, 75 degrees, 105 degrees, and 165 degrees are not generally used by astrologers and so were not included in those tests.15 These angles were found to be significant in later studies and are included in the main discussion in this paper.
The beat frequencies would be 11.33, 5.6, 13.6, 165.5, 433, 1263.5, 2493 and 3758 days for each planetary interaction in the same order as the previous list. Future studies may reveal a connection between the geophysical relationship between these frequencies and the rate of earthquakes.
Sun 75 degrees from Uranus. Mars 180 degrees from Uranus. Sun 135 degrees from Saturn. Sun 105 degrees from Mars. Venus 135 degrees from Mars. Venus 45 degrees from Uranus. Venus 135 degrees from Saturn. Mercury 30 degrees from Jupiter. Moon 0 degrees from the Sun, New Moon. Mars 30 degrees to Saturn.
Sun 30 degrees from Uranus. Sun 60 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 45 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 45 degrees from Jupiter.
Mercury 0 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 90 degrees from Jupiter. Mercury 90 degrees from Pluto. Venus 45 degrees from the Sun. Venus 30 degrees from Uranus. Sun 15 degrees from Uranus. Sun 105 degrees from Pluto. Sun 105 degrees Jupiter. Jupiter 90 degrees from Uranus. Jupiter 180 degrees from Pluto.
Mars 30 degrees from Saturn. Venus 120 degrees from Mars. Venus 90 degrees from Saturn. Sun 90 degrees from Jupiter. Sun 0 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 120 degrees from Saturn. Sun 90 degrees from Pluto.
Sun 120 degrees from Pluto. Venus 135 degrees from Neptune. Mercury 45 degrees from Mars. Mars 150 degrees from Neptune. Sun 150 from Uranus. Mercury 45 degrees from Saturn.
Jupiter 75 degrees from Uranus. Mars 150 degrees from Pluto. The Sun 105 degrees from Pluto. Mars 60 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 165 degrees from Saturn. Mercury 135 degrees from Neptune. The Sun 75 degrees from Uranus.
Jupiter 165 degrees from Neptune. Venus 90 degrees from Neptune. Venus 15 degrees from Jupiter. Mercury 45 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 135 Degrees from Pluto. Venus 150 degrees from Saturn. The Sun 45 degrees from Uranus The Sun 135 degrees from Pluto. Mars 75 degrees from Neptune.
Saturn 150 degrees Uranus. Mercury 75 degrees from Jupiter. The Sun 105 degrees from Saturn. Mars 165 degrees from Pluto. The Sun 165 degrees from Pluto. Mercury 30 degrees from Neptune. Sun conjunct Mars.
Mercury 15 degrees from Neptune. Venus 15 degrees from Neptune. The Sun 30 degrees from Pluto. Venus 75 degrees from Saturn. The Sun 90 degrees from Saturn. Mercury 45 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 165 degrees from Jupiter, Venus 30 degrees from Mars. Mercury 45 degrees from Pluto. Mercury 165 degrees from Saturn. Venus 30 degrees from Neptune. Mars 0 degrees from Neptune. The Sun 15 degrees from Neptune. Venus 60 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 0 degrees from Neptune. Venus 120 degrees from Jupiter. The Sun 15 degrees from Mercury. Mercury 15 degrees from Mars. Mercury 30 degrees from Uranus. Them Sun 15 degrees from Mars. The 45 degrees from Uranus. Mercury 90 degrees from Jupiter. Mars 30 degrees from Uranus. The Sun 165 degrees from Jupiter. Mars 90 degrees from Jupiter. Venus 30 degrees from Pluto. Venus 90 degrees from Saturn. Mercury 60 degrees from Pluto.
Table 2 . This table shows the actual number
of earthquakes for each 5 day period
between January 8th and May 8th, 2014. UTC.
Jan. 8 0 Feb. 17 0 Mar. 29 2 May 8 7
Jan. 13 1 Feb. 22 1 Apr. 3 6
Jan. 18 0 Feb. 27 0 Apr. 8 2
Jan. 23 2 Mar. 4 3 Apr. 13 9
Jan. 28. 2 Mar. 9 1 Apr. 18 4
Feb. 2 2 Mar. 14 4 Apr. 23 3
Feb. 7 2 Mar. 19 4 Apr. 28 2
Feb. 12 2 Mar. 24 3 May 3 1
Formula and analysis for Pearson Correlation for 5 day earthquake periodicity.
Howard Cornell, Encyclopedia of Medical Astrology pg. 192, (New York, Samuel Weiser. 1972)
http://www.midlandsschoolofastrology.co.uk/predicting_earthquakes_-_a_little_science.html (November 15, 2014.)
https://tonylouis.wordpress.com/2013/05/23/can-earthquakes-be-predicted-with-astrology/ (November 15, 2014)
http://www.astrology.co.uk/news/quakes.htm (November 15, 2014)
http://www.esotericapublications.com/article-507.html (November 15, 2014)
http://www.astrocycles.net/astrology-of-earthquakes/ (November 15, 2014)
J Gribben, S. Plagemann, The Jupiter Effect The Planet As Triggers of Devastating Earthquakes ( New York, Walker & Co., September 1974) pg. 192
http://cura.free.fr/xv/13brianj.html (November, 2014)
B.Johnston, Planetary Aspects and Terrestrial Earthquakes, The International Astrologer, (Los Angeles, 2001)
Howard Cornell, Encyclopedia of Medical Astrology pg. 192, (New York, Samuel Weiser. 1972)
Ibid. pg 35.
Ibid. pg 524
Ibid. pg. 595
Ibid pg. 624
For the complete summary of the original studies undertaken during the 1990’s and early 2000’s please see : http://brianjohnston200.wix.com/skepticsand-science#!astrological-research/c1wy6http://brianjohnston200.wix.com/skepticsand-science#!astrological-research/c1wy6 and http://brianjohnston200.wix.com/skepticsand-science#!astrological-research-pg-2/c1y1h (November 17, 2014)
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/ (November 15, 2014)
Howard Cornell, Encyclopedia of Medical Astrology pg. 192, (New York, Samuel Weiser. 1972) pg. 192
B.Johnston, Planetary Aspects and Terrestrial Earthquakes, The International Astrologer, (Los Angeles, 2001)
http://astrostyle.com/april-grand-cross/ (March, 2014)
http://darkstarastrology.com/grand-cross-2014/ (March, 2014)
http://www.universallifetools.com/2014/03/cardinal-grand-cross-april-2014/ (March, 2014)
http://earthquaketrack.com/recent (May 15, 2014)
For all the data for the earthquakes during this period please see http://thecanadianinstituteforappliedastronomy.yolasite.com/research.php November 15, 2014
for all the charts and the commentary on these observations please see: http://thecanadianinstituteforappliedastronomy.yolasite.com/research.php
http://earthquaketrack.com/biggest (November, 15, 2014)
http://www.convertalot.com/earthquake_power__calculator.html (November 15, 2014)
Stephen Hawking, On The Shoulders of Giants, “The Harmony of the World, Book IV” (Running Press, Philadelphia, 2003)
Douglas Meyer, Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Secret of the Holy Grail http://www.rosecroixjournal.org/issues/2014/articles/vol10_60_71_meyer.pdf (San Jose, 2014)
For all the charts for the earthquakes see http://thecanadianinstituteforappliedastronomy.yolasite.com/great-earthquakes-of-2014.php
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-do-lights-sometimes-appear-in-the-sky-during-an-earthquake-180948077/?no-istgkg (June 10, 2015)
Electric Displacement by Earthquakes Antonio Lira and Jorge A. Heraud Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú Peru
https://medium.com/the-physics-arxiv-blog/voyager-1-may-be-caught-inside-an-interstellar-flux-transfer-event-6911d42443b (June 10, 2015)
http://phys.org/news/2012-11-high-frequency-flux-events-mercury.html (June 10, 2015)
J. P. Eastwood,1 T. D. Phan,2 R. C. Fear,3 D. G. Sibeck,4 V. Angelopoulos,5 M. Øieroset,2 and M. A. Shay6 Received 13 M, “Survival of flux transfer event (FTE) flux ropes far along the tail magnetopause.” , JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117, A08222, doi:10.1029/2012JA017722, 2012
H. Hasegawa, J. Wang, M. W. Dunlop, Z. Y. Pu, Q.-H. Zhang, B. Lavraud, M. G. G. T. Taylor, O. D. Constantinescu, J. Berchem, V. Angelopoulos, J. P. McFadden, H. U. Frey, E. V. Panov, M. Volwerk, Y. V. Bogdanova. “Evidence for a flux transfer event generated by multiple X-line reconnection at the magnetopause,” Geophysical Letters, 20 August 2010
M.J.S Johnston, Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Earthquakes, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Cal.